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Active and Passive smoking with the risk of
breast cancer among women






œ Active and Passive smoking with the risk of@breast cancer among women œ

Objective: To examine the association between smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer using quantitative
measures of lifetime passive and active smoking exposure among postmenopausal women. Design Prospective
cohort study. Setting: 40 clinical centres in the United States. Participants: 79990 women aged 50 to
79 enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study during 1993 and 1998.
Main outcome measures: Self reported active and passive smoking, pathologically confirmed invasive
breast cancer.

Results: In total, 3520 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were identified during an average of 10.3 years
of follow-up. Compared with women who had never smoked, breast cancer risk was elevated by 9% among
former smokers and by 16% among current smokers. Significantly higher breast cancer risk was observed
in active smokers with high intensity and duration of smoking, as well as with initiation of smoking in the
teenage years. The highest breast cancer risk was found among women who had smoked for 50 years or
more, compared with all lifetime non-smokers, hazard ratio 1.45, compared with lifetime non-smokers with
no exposure to passive smoking. An increased risk of breast cancer persisted for up to 20 years after
smoking cessation.

Among women who had never smoked, after adjustment for potential confounders, those with the most
extensive exposure to passive smoking had a 32% excess risk of breast cancer, compared with those who
had never been exposed to passive smoking. However, there was no significant association in the other
groups with lower exposure and no clear dose response to cumulative passive smoking exposure.
Conclusions
: Active smoking was associated with an increase in breast cancer risk among postmenopausal
women. There was also a suggestion of an association between passive smoking and increased risk of
breast cancer.

Source: British Medical Journal, March 2011

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Smoking During Pregnancy
If your health isn't enough to make you quit smoking, then the health of your baby should be. Smoking
during pregnancy affects you and your baby's health before, during, and after your baby is born.
The nicotine (the addictive substance in cigarettes), carbon monoxide, and numerous other poisons
you inhale from a cigarette are carried through your bloodstream and go directly to your baby.
Smoking while pregnant will:
  • Lower the amount of oxygen available to you and your growing baby.
  • Increase your baby's heart rate.
  • Increase the chances of a spontaneous abortion and stillbirth.
  • Increase the risk that your baby is born prematurely and/or born with low birth weight.
  • Increase your baby's risk of developing respiratory problems.

The more cigarettes you smoke per day, the greater your baby's chances of developing these and
other health problems. There is no "safe" level of smoking while pregnant.


How Does Secondhand Smoke Affect Pregnancy?

Secondhand smoke (also called passive smoke or environmental tobacco smoke) is the combination of
smoke from a burning cigarette and smoke exhaled by a smoker. The smoke that burns off the end of
a cigarette or cigar actually contains more harmful substances. These are tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and
others. If you are regularly exposed to cigarette smoke, you increase your and your baby's risk of
developing lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, allergies, asthma, and other health problems. Babies
exposed to secondhand smoke may also develop reduced lung capacity and are at higher risk for sudden
infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Source:WebMD,



Cervical cancer risk roughly doubled with passive smoking.

Researchers have found that passive smoking can increase the risk of cervical cancer by nearly the same
amount as active smoking and roughly double that of no smoke exposure. Two studies revealed varied results,
and researchers believe that the true figure is somewhere in the middle. They want more research done to
more accurately ascertain the risks of cervical cancer associated to passive smoking. In 1963, the cervical
cancer risk increased by 2.1 times in passive smokers, 2.6 times in active smokers, as compared to those
with no smoke exposure. In 1975, the cervical cancer risk increased by 1.4 times in passive smokers,
1.7 times in active smokers, respectively, as compared to those with no smoke exposure. The combined
effects of exposure to active and passive smoking suggest its potential adverse role in cervical carcinogenesis.

Source: summary of medical news story as reported by Cancer Page - Reuters Health 23 Aug 2011


Smoking and smoking cessation in relation to mortality in women

Most of the excess risk of vascular mortality due to smoking in women may be eliminated rapidly upon
cessation and within 20 years for lung diseases. Postponing the age of smoking initiation reduces the risk
of respiratory disease, lung cancer, and other smoking-related cancer deaths but has a little effect on
the other cause-specific mortality. These data suggest that smoking is associated with an increased risk
of colorectal cancer mortality but not ovarian cancer mortality.



Cigarette Smoking Increase Cervical Cancer Risk in Women Infected with HPV
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The article was revised in December 2011, by Junhaku Miyamoto, M.D., PhD.
COPYRIGHT(C) 2006-2014. JUNHAKU MIYAMOTO,M.D. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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Health advice from USA



Special Note:
@Two South Kuril and two islands off Hokkaido are the own land of Japan.
@Smoke-free hotels in Japan
@Domestic travel in Japan
@Smoke-free should be the minimum standard for the host city in the Olympic.
@WHO: Smoking should be banned in all public spaces.
@World population: seven billion v.s. Declining birth rate in Japan
@Nobody in the earth can destroy the natural beauty of the land.
@Tax saving's rental housing is mushrooming.


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COPYRIGHT(C)2006-2019 JUNHAKU MIYAMOTO, M.D. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
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