Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland)
(L) Berlin in ruins after the World War 2, Potsdamer Platz in 1945
(R) A map shows the knowledge of German language in EU countries.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in the
The World War resulted in the death of nearly ten million German soldiers..
large territorial losses and the destruction of multiple major cities.
Now, the country has developed a high standard of living and established
system of social security. It holds a key position in European affairs
and maintains a
multitude of close partnerships on a global level. Germany is recognized
as a scientific
and technological leader in several fields. In 2008, the population in
Germany is estimated
about 82,000,000, which accounts for the largest population among the member
of the European Union, and is home to the third biggest number of international
German is the official and predominantly spoken language in Germany. It
is one of the
three working languages along European Commission, with English and French.
the world, German is spoken by approximately 100 million native speakers
and also about 80
million non-native speakers. German is the main language of about 90 million
in the EU. 67% of German citizens are bilingual and 27% of them are trilingual.
(L) Source: University of Texas Libraries (R) A change of population of
German territories, up to 2000.
With some of Europe's highest smoking rates, Germany's patchwork of smoking
continue to be contested.
In Berlin, the non-smoking law came into effect on 1 January 2008. In addition,
may not serve meals (only snacks), may not allow minors to enter and must
post a sign
saying that the bar is for smokers. In practice, the smoking ban is generally
in cafes, theaters and restaurants (where food is served), but not in bars.
discos must, officially, have a separate smoking room, but as controllers
do not work at
past 10pm, these laws are not enforced.
Barden-Wuerttemberg$B!!(B $B!!(BLower Saxony$B!!!!(BHesse
In August 2007, the states of Barden-Wuerttemberg and Lower Saxony banned
in restaurants, bars and clubs. In October 2007 Hesse also passed a law
regulations. Most of the other German states followed in January 2008;
of these ban still allowed smoking in separate ventilated rooms. Smoking
is banned on
public transport, hospitals, airports and in public and federal buildings,
including the parliament.
A smokers' seat and a nonsmokers's seat in a restaurant are in the same
(This picture was taken in 2005 ).
Bavaria loosens its restrictions on smoking in public, Germany's toughest.
Bavarian lawmakers have voted to loosen Germany's toughest restrictions
on smoking in
a public indoor space. The state legislature in Munich decided to allow
small bars will be able
to introduce special smoking areas starting August 2009, so long as they
are labeled as
"smoking bars". Larger bars will be allowed to set a room aside,
as will beer tents, for smokers.
That will end a complete ban on smoking in bars, restaurants and discos,
that took effect in
January 2008 and bring Bavaria in line with looser restrictions observed
elsewhere in Germany.
Bavaria's Health Minister Dr Markus Soeder explains it was impossible to
enforce the legislation,
and relaxing the regulations will restore.
Radio Netherlands, January 20, 2009 and Canadian Press, July 15, 2009
$B!!3F=#5,@)>u67(B, 2008 ( in Japanese )$B!!(Bhttp://www.asaho.com/jpn/bkno/2008/0107.html
(L) A dining car of the German Railway ( Deutsch Bahn ), photographed in
(R) ICE dining room of German railway: This was photographed in May 2011.
Germany's top court has ruled that the smoking bans introduced across
the country earlier this year is unconstitutional.
The ruling came after a case brought by the owner of two small bars, who
claim that their business
has been unfairly hit by the smoking ban. The smoking bans in Germany have
been poorly received
by tobacco-friendly Germans, about a third of whom smoke. The laws have
often been ignored or
barely enforced, with the owners of small bars and restaurants claiming
that their businesses were
threatened by the legislation. They claimed that their small-size bars
prevented them cordoning off
a smokers' area, as other bars have been allowed to, putting them at a
The constitutional court agreed.
Under the Nazi's smoking was frowned upon. After 1945 smoking became a
symbol of post-war
freedoms and broadmindedness. Now, all German states will have to review
their smoking bans
with new legislation by 2009, either banning smoking outright or allowing
it in one-room bars too.
Source: July 30, 2008 Telegraph.Com.UK
In February, 2009, Die Spiegel reported that the smoking bans in bars are
being very weakly controlled
by the authorities, and in many places the ban is not observed at all.
The magazine opined that in the
end the tobacco lobby seems to have gotten its will: if there is to be
a ban, then it has to be one with
a lot of exceptions. In Germany, the tobacco industry lobby has a strong
influence in politics.
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in France and Germany 2011
$B!!(B What we can learn from a smoke-free action by the member of German SPD:
$B!!!!!!!!(BA lecture talk in Tokyo
All railway trains should be completely smoke -free.
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$B!!(B$B%*!<%9%H%i%j%"E4F;N99T5-(B $B!!(B Brief Journey by Australian Rail
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$B!!(B$B%9%H%C%/%[%k%`CO2 Stockholm County Railways
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$B!!(B $B%U%i%s%99qE4$NN9(B $B!!(BRailway Travel in France
$B!!(B$B%I%$%D9qE4$NN9(B Railway Travel in Germany
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$B!!(B$B%m%7%"9bB.E4F;!!(B$B!!(BSapsan, high-speed train of Russia
$B!!(B$B%5%s%/%H%Y%k%0!&%X%k%7%s%-E4F;!!(BAllegro, high-speed train between Finland and Russia
$B!!(B$B%-%c%s%Y%i!&%7%I%K!Railways connecting Canberra and Sydney, Australia
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$B!!(B$B%N%k%&%'!Train in Norway, Trondheim to Oslo
Smoking ban in the railway trains of the world
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