(L) Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi in 1937.Nehru later became the India's first prime minister in 1947.
(R) Painting in the sixth century found at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by
geographical area, the second most populous country. Total population in India is estimated to be
about 1,200,000,000.

Taj Mahal completed in 1654 ( Photographed by Junhaku Miyamoto, M.D., in March 2010 )

India's golden age was started from the third century. Science, technology, engineering, art, logic,
literature, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy flourished under the patronage of Gupta
Empire.From the early eighteenth century, India gradually annexed by the British East India Company,
and colonized by the United Kingdom from the mid-nineteenth century, India became an independent
nation in 1947 aftera struggle for independence that was marked by widespread non-violent resistance.

The Indian economy has grown steadily over the last two decades. However, its growth has been
uneven when comparing different social groups, economic groups, geographic regions, and rural and
urban areas.
Source: Wikipedia.

Source: University of Texas Libraries

In India, money unit of a Rupee is used. The following exchange rate was in March 2010.
100 Rupee= 205 Japanese yen
100 Rupee = 2.21 American dollar
100 Rupee = 1.65 Euro

120,000,000 smokers in India

NHK TV Oct.6, 2008. Smokers in India, 120,000,000. Death from smoking, 900,000 per annuum.
Indian Minister of Health makes an effort to reduce the number of smokers and to prevent
a second hand smoking.

100 million smoke beedi* in India: Report
* A beedi is a thin, often flavored, Indian cigarette.

A health ministry reported that about 100 million people, mostly the poor and illiterate people, smoke beedi
in India and 200,000 tuberculosis deaths are due to these hand-rolled cigarettes. The report, for the year
2004-2005 and termed as the first systematic analysis on the trend, said beedi smoking was more harmful
than cigarette smoking. Beedi smoking contributes substantially to death from tuberculosis in India. So said
Health Secretary Naresh Dayal. Beedi is the most widely used form of tobacco. The 100 million people smoke
beedi, out of 240 million tobacco users. It said that the beedi smoking causes the same diseases as cigarette
smoking does.

A beedi smoking is predominantly a male practice and is more prevalent in rural areas. It is more common
to Muslims, closely followed by Hindus. . Its smoke has proven the carcinogens, toxic poisonous substances.
It contains high levels of tobacco specific nitrosamines -the most potent cancer causing agents. The report
said that in comparison to unfiltered cigarettes, beedi-smoke contained higher levels of carbon monoxide,
ammonia, hydrogen, cyanide and phenol. It is harmful to not just smokers, but those exposed to
second-hand smoke as well.
Source: May 13, 2008 Delhi.

Percentage of males smoking any tobacco product.

India bans smoking indoors.

The Centre would strictly enforce the ban on smoking in public places from October, 2008. A modified act
on no smoking in public places had been already enforced strongly across the country from October, 2008,
The Government of India has notified revised Rules on Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places in May, 2008.
As per the revised Rules, smoking is banned in the shopping malls, cinema halls, public/private workplace,
hotels, banquet halls, discotheques, canteen, coffee house, pubs, bars, airport lounge, railway stations.
People can smoke on roads or in their homes but not in any other place. The adverse impact is more while
smoking inside closed environment than in roads or streets, he said. The 40 per cent of deaths occur in
India due to tobacco related diseases while two-third of deaths occur due to smoking, junk foods and
usage ofdrugs.

Source: Chennai, May 31,2008:

VIDEO India bans smoking inside.

India gears up for strict tobacco control.

Hotels, restaurants, airports, railway stations, offices, shops and factories prepared to enforce a smoking
ban in public across India in a major effort to curb tobacco use that authorities say kill estimated 900,000
people in the country every year. Police and food and drug authorities will levy fines, whenever there is
a violation. Besides on their respective premises, government officers, inspectors of central excise, sales
tax, transport and health departments, principals of schools can fine violators. The new Smoking in Public
Places Rules 2008 would come into force from Oct 2, the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

Hundreds of thousands of people lose their lives due to smoking-related diseases in India each year.
They are at risk from all cardiovascular diseases like heart attacks and stroke and cancer. Government
estimates say that though the tobacco industry brings revenue of the 270 billion Rs to the country every
year, the treatment cost of the disease burden is at least the 300 billion Rs.
Source: Oct 1,2008 New Kerala Com. New Delhi, India.

Smoking Ban and Tobacco Control in Greece
Smoking Ban and Tobacco Control in Turkey


タバコの害が深刻、年間100万人が死亡 2008年2月に国際研究チームが、医学誌ニューイングランド・ジャーナル・オブ
いる。 研究内容はインド、カナダと英国の医師や研究者が協力し、調査員約900人を動員して、インド国内の110万世帯を
これほど大規模な調査はインドでも初めてであった。 その結果、インド男性の30%、女性の5%がタバコを吸っていた。
タバコに関連した疾病による死者のうち、半数以上が貧困層や文字が読めない人々だった。 研究者によると、これは通常の
タバコよりも小さく、その分安いタバコ ( beedi )の流通が原因と見られるという。現在はタバコの包装紙に「文字」による
世界保健機関(WHO)は喫煙による死者が今世紀中に10億人に達するとの予測を発表している。 インドのラムドス保健相は

引用 2008年2月14日 AP通信(ニューデリー)

インドが屋内禁煙に政策転換  多様性に富んだ国をまとめることは非常に難しいことであるが、インド政府は2008年10月
より「職場に於ける完全禁煙」を実施する。ラマドス保健相はバンガロール( Bengaluru )に於ける記者会見で、「私有、


インドで「職場に於ける完全禁煙」の実施を法令で定めた。 政権担当者は喫煙規制を実施した後に発生するサービス産業

タバコ産業へのFDI禁止へ、JTなどに打撃 政府インド政府は、たばこ産業への外国直接投資(FDI)を禁止する方向だ。
引用 NNA February 22,2010

Arrival to India  India's hotels Dehli temples Dehli Metro Indian railways New Dehli
Agra Taj Mahal Cheating in India Security in India Smoking ban in India  India 2010

2008年2月執筆 2008年10月加筆 2010年3月加筆
執筆 医学博士 宮本順伯
This Web site is link-free.
The report was written in February 2008 by Junhaku Miyamoto, MD, PhD.

Arrival to India 2010

Smoke-free Hotel and Travel
受動喫煙防止条例  屋内全面禁煙  屋内喫煙設備撤去 鉄道車内完全禁煙レンタカー レストラン バー 飲食店 ホテル 空港 喫煙規制
Restaurant hotel railway rent-a-car travel airport condominium smoking ban
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