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Iraq's parliament bans smoking in public places.




Republic of Iraq


Map of Iraq and space view of Zagros mountains from space

Republic of Iraq is a country spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range,
the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert.

Iraq has a narrow section of coastline measuring 58 kms on the northern Persian Gulf.
The capital, Baghdad is in the center-east of the country. The population of Baghdad
as of 2011 is approximately 7,200,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second-largest city
in the Arab World, after Cairo, Egypt.


The 13th century painting of Mongol soldiers, the conversion of Ghazan Khan to Islam and Ghazan on his horse


Iraq is comparable in size to the US state of California. Iraq mainly consists of desert, but near the two
major rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are fertile alluvial plains, as the rivers carry about 60,000,000 sqms of
silt annually to the delta. The north of the country is mostly composed of mountains. Iraq has a small
coastline measuring 58 kms along the Persian Gulf.

Iraq ranks second in the world behind Saudi Arabia in the amount of Oil reserves, yet the United States
Department of Energy estimates that up to 90% of the country remains unexplored. Iraq's oil production
costs are among the lowest in the world, but only 2,000 oil wells have been drilled in Iraq, compared with
one million wells in Texas alone.
Source: Wikipedia



Topographic map of Iraq.


Oil fire at the Rumaila oil field in 2003



In March 2003, a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq, with the stated reason, which Iraq
had failed to abandon its nuclear and chemical weapons' development program in violation of U.N.
President Bush declared that Iraq was a member of the "Axis of Evil" and that, like North Korea
and Iran, Iraq's attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction posed a serious threat to U.S.
national security. These claims were based on documents that were provided to him by the CIA
and the government of the United Kingdom. However, according to a comprehensive U.S. government
report, no weapons of mass destruction was found. After over seven years' occupation, U.S. forces
ended combat missions in Iraq in August 2010.
Source: Wikipedia

Iraqi parliament passed an anti-smoking law.

The Iraqi parliament in February 2012 approved an anti-smoking law that stipulates about $8.50
fine for smoking in public, in a country where such smoking is a fixture.
Smoking in government offices, schools, universities, hospitals, airports, offices, theatres,
gathering places, hotels, restaurants, nightclubs, markets and petrol stations will be banned.
The law aims to protect citizens from the danger of tobacco and reduce the number of smokers
by taking measures to combat this plague. It is based on Article 33 of the constitution, which
describes that every individual has the right to live in safe environmental conditions.
Source: AFP Feb 2, 2012 Baghdad


イラク共和国

イラクの地形は3つに大別できる。 国土を特徴付ける地形は対になって北西から南東方向に流れる
二本の大河、南側のユーフラテス川と北側のティグリス川である。ユーフラテス川の南側は、シリア
砂漠とネフド砂漠が切れ目なく続いており、不毛の土地となっている。砂漠側は最高高度1000mに
達するシリア・アラビア台地を形成しており、緩やかな傾斜をなしてユーフラテス川に至る。二本の
大河周辺はメソポタミア平原が広がる。農耕に適した土壌と豊かな河川水によって、人口のほとんど
が集中する。イラクとイランの国境はイラク北部で北東方向に張り出している。国境線はザグロス山脈
の峰と尾根となっている。イラク最高峰のハジ・イブラヒーム山 (3600m) もザグロス山中、国境線沿い
にそびえている。同山の周囲30km四方はイラクで最も高い山々が群立している。

原油確認埋蔵量は1,120億バレルで、サウジアラビア・イランに次ぐ, 世界で3番目の原油埋蔵国である。
米国エネルギー省は埋蔵量の90%が未開発で、掘られた石油井戸はまだ2,000本に過ぎないと推定して
いる。2003年時点の総発電量295億kWhの98.5%は石油による火力発電でまかなっている。

イラクでは2012年2月に公共的施設での禁煙を施行した。その施設として、政府機関建物、教育機関、
医療機関、空港、事務所、劇場、集会所、レストラン、ナイトクラブ、マーケット、石油施設などが
含まれる。違反者に対する罰金は約8.50ドルである。法律は市民を有害なタバコの煙から守るため
であり、喫煙者数を減少させるためにある。その基本はすべての国民は安全な環境条件のもとで
生活する権利を謳った憲法に基づくものである。


 
イラクで公共的施設を全面禁煙  
2012年2月執筆
「禁煙席ネット」 主宰 医学博士 宮本順伯
本文および写真の著作権は宮本順伯に帰属
「禁煙席ネット」へのリンクは自由
The article was written in February 2012, by Junhaku Miyamoto, M.D., PhD.



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Restaurant hotel railway rent-a-car travel airport tobacco smoking ban