United States smoking ban
 Smoking Ban in Apartments



(L) Long Beach, California (R) Golden Gate Bridge viewed from underneath, San Francisco, California

California Senate approves smoking ban for apartments.

The California senate has passed a proposal to ban smoking in apartments. Anti-smoking act will
allow the landlords to prohibit smoking in their apartment buildings to protect non-smoking
tenants from second hand smoke.However, the news report did not disclose what punishment
would be meted out in case of violation.

The measure will strengthen previous anti-smoking measures that bar Californians lighting up
in many public places, including playgrounds, concert halls, restaurants, offices and some beaches.
The California Apartment Association, which represents about 50,000 property owners, supports
the smoking ban. The Western Center on Law and Poverty (WCLP), an NGO working among
low-income Californians, argued that the proposal discriminates against the poor, the disabled
and people of color, who smoke and rent at higher rates than other segments of the population.

Source: Los Angeles Times, May 31,2008


Honolulu, Hawaii

Smoking ban in apartments and condominiums came in sight in Hawaii.

Now anti-smoking forces in Hawaii are setting their sights on apartments and condos. The Coalition
for a Tobacco-Free Hawaii hopes to convince owners of residential rental and condominium buildings
to prohibit smoking inside a private living area. The nonprofit group argues second-hand smoke
emanating from the privacy of one unit may affect others when people live in close quarters. As
laws like this become the norm, I think people are going to start thinking about how, about where
we live," said H. Lee, University of Hawaii speech professor. The state has already banned smoking
in restaurants, bars and within 20 feet of the entrances or windows of smoke-free buildings.

Source: The Honolulu Advertiser.


Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. Photographed in August 1962 by Dr. Junhaku Miyamoto.

Agencies ban smoking in Oregon.

The North Bend City and Coos-Curry Housing Authorities have adopted the policy to ban smoking
in the apartments and buildings they own. It will go into effect March 2010. The Woodland Apartments
Preservation and Powers Housing Development adopted the policy to prohibit smoking in the houses
for rent in October 2009. They will not be allowed to smoke inside the units or other buildings owned
by the agencies. However, residents will be allowed to smoke outside their units 10 feet from
the doors of neighbors.

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development published a notice in July, 2009, strongly
encouraging housing authorities adopt the policies to prohibit smoking inside. The purpose of this
ordinance is to protect staff from second-hand smoke while working in the units and to reduce costs
of preparing vacant units for leasing.

In the state of Oregon, the landlords have already banned smoking in about 40 percent of their rental units.
Source: Portland Press Herald and others.


Salt Lake City, Utah

Utah’s Smoke-free Apartment and Condominium

Apartment and condominium residents, managers, and owners can now breathe easier. The Utah
Smoke-Free Apartment and Condominium Guide, an online resource, promotes smoke-free housing
in Utah. Nationally, 50,000 people die each year as consequent on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure.
Additionally, hundreds of thousands of people exposed to it suffer various other illnesses, such as
asthma and bronchitis.

For condominium associations, smoking ban hits home


Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, photographed in May 2008, by Dr. Junhaku Miyamoto.


As smoking restrictions become increasingly widespread, smokers find the last place they can indulge
freely is at home. Perhaps not for long if that home is a condominium. Associations are passing their
own bans, and some include living units as well as common areas. The 1418 N. Lake Shore Drive
Condominium Association in Chicago, recently amended its declaration to prohibit smoking in the interior
inside the units.

The amendment was prompted by a desire to create a healthier environment for residents and their guests
at the 28-unit high-rise, which was built in 1981 in Chicago. The owners are very health-conscious in this
building, and smoking isn't healthy," she said. The association is seeking certification as a "green building"
under the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating program of the U.S. Green Building
Council. The vote to adopt the no-smoking amendment was nearly unanimous. Smoke-free policies also
save money and lives by reducing cleaning and painting chores and by lowering the risk of fire. . There are
two ways to impose a restriction. One is to amend the association's declaration; the other is to pass a rule.
Reference: Chicago Tribune, October 01, 2010

Co-op & Condo Boards Consider Smoking Ban

It has become a hot-button real estate issue: many condos and co-ops considering a vote to ban smoking
in their buildings. Some say it is a health issue, while others say it is a violation of people's rights. However,
when your cigarette smoke goes into a neighbor's apartment, then you are smoking in your neighbor's
apartment, and your neighbor has a right to not have second-hand smoke taking place in their apartment.
If they cannot physically prevent the smoke from seeping into the units, in that situation, banning to put
cigarettes may be the best way to protect residents' health and the building. Many argue that it is not fair
for a building to tell people what they can do in their own homes. Nevertheless, tenants knew that before
they moved in. It affects the market value as it's not normative in the market. It can result in litigation,
which is costly to the building, and it makes potential purchasers suspect as to what other kinds of rules
might be passed that could infringe on their privacy. While a board has yet to pass a smoking ban, many
continue to discuss it.
Reference: May14, 2011, Jill Urban NY1 News

New Smoking Ban Proposal Targets Condos, Co-Ops
Some buildings don't want you to smoke in your own apartment.

At least half a dozen Manhattan condos and co-ops are considering a highly controversial measure that
would make it illegal for individuals to smoke in their own apartments. The co-op boards are expected
to raise the issue of smoke-free buildings before their shareholders at meetings this spring, reports Wall
Street Journal. More co-ops are considering putting the matter to vote. Such a proposal is in line
with the city's anti-smoking campaign, which has become increasingly aggressive over the years. It
banned smoking in restaurants, then extended the ban to parks, pedestrian plazas and public beaches.

The city has already banned smoking in public places in any building with at least 10 units, but most
privately owned residential buildings have thus far refrained from imposing an all-out smoking ban on
condo and co-op owners. Now, fueled in part by the city's efforts, fear of potential smoking-related
lawsuits and increasing concern about the effects of second-hand smoke, the long-standing rules may
be about to change. Despite the health benefits, some property owners aren't enthusiastic about the
no-smoking proposal. Some fear it could decrease their property value. Others, non-smokers included,
say such a rule would breach their constitutional right to privacy. Either way, such a hotly debated
proposal faces roadblocks. More than two-thirds of all shareholders have to vote to pass a proposal in
most co-ops, reports the Journal, and condos may call for at least a three-quarters majority vote to
enact the ban.
Reference: NBC NEW YORK, Mar 16, 2011

Increasingly, Smoking Indoors Is Forbidden at Public Housing.


Tenement buildings in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, New York City

In January 2012, Maine will be the first state to ban smoking in public housing in the country, in which
all of its public housing authorities are smoke-free, affecting about 12,000 tenants, after the model of
Auburn Housing Authority ( HA ), Maine, which became the authority to prohibit smoking inside early
in 2004. Similar policies are being adopted with increasing frequency across the country as cities move
aggressively to restrict smoking in more public places, from bars and restaurants to parks, beaches and
vehicles. Boston will become the biggest city to ban smoking in its public housing in coming September,
which serves about 25,000 tenants. Detroit, San Antonio and Portland, Oregon, already have similar
restrictions in place. A smoking ban is largely a response to the risks posed to nonsmokers by secondhand
smoke. In addition, property managers say smokeless apartments are cheaper to clean, especially if there
is carpeting, and reduce the risk of fire.

Depending on who is asked, banning smoking in public housing is either an effective way to promote
healthier living, as many officials and nonsmokers contend, or a violation of individual liberties, as some
tenants argue. However, after several years of the ban, the objections have gained no legal traction.
Smokers are not perceived as protected classes, and civil liberties groups and legal aid societies say
they tend not to defend such cases. people. There are so many legitimate issues that landlords can raise.
Housing officials point out that they do not require tenants to quit, only to smoke outside, and they
often provide shelters for smokers. They also offer smoking-cessation programs, although they say
few people attend. Many smokers just violate the ban and hope they avoid getting caught, and are annoyed
when a neighbor reported him for smoking in his apartment. Smokers do not like to go outside, especially
at night, because they are afraid of getting mugged and there are no security cameras. Officials recognize
that a ban can be a burden for tenants, particularly because many are elderly or disabled. Secondhand
smoke is an overwhelming public policy issue. Officials at various housing authorities, including the federal
Department of Housing and Urban Development( HUD), say they hear far more complaints from nonsmokers
about their neighbors, who smoke than from smokers claiming the right to light up cigarette.

The federal housing department says it is planning to gather information next year on how various cities
have carried out their bans and will publish a report of best practices, in the hope of encouraging more HA
to enact their own. In Los Angeles, a spokeswoman said the HA was conducting a review and might consider
a ban. In New York City, a HA spokeswoman said it had in no position to enforce a ban. One hand,
Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg has been one of the most aggressive advocates of ridding smoke from public
spaces and clamping down on other health-related menaces like trans fats. A spokeswoman at the city
health department said officials were reviewing the experiences of other municipalities. The federal
department cited reports that secondhand smoke caused the deaths of 50,000 nonsmokers nationwide
each year. In 2006, it said, smoking was responsible for more than 18,000 apartment fires that resulted in
the deaths of 700 people, excluding firefighters, and caused almost $500 million in property damage.

It issued a second memorandum in September 2010 extending its recommendation to other types of housing
by a local government, which provides housing vouchers to low-income families. The New England Journal
of Medicine called for a complete smoking ban in any housing complex receiving public found. However, HUD
is not likely to require a ban nationwide anytime soon. The director of public housing programs for the agency,
said a mandate could result in evicting entire families, even if just one person smoked. Most housing
authorities have long waiting lists, she said, and evictions would increase homelessness, especially in a sour
economy. The experience in Maine suggests that evictions solely for smoking violations are unusual. A concern
shifted to fairness to nonsmokers, and the dispensation for smokers was revoked, prompting some to quit
the habit and some to move out. Still, questions of fairness persist because those below the poverty line tend
to smoke more than those above it. Studies show that, on average, 30 percent of people in public housing is
smokers, compared with 20 percent of the general population.
Reference: The New York Times December 17, 2011

 
Smoke-Free Environments Law Project



H
Smoking Restriction at Hotels in the World: Actual Survey
The ratio of a non-smoking guest room to the total hotel rooms was calculated,
based on-the-spot investigation.

Japan high speed railways Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Tokyo
 Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels in Korea
 Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Macau
Thailand Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Bangkok
Hong Kong Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Hong Kong
Canada smoking ban Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Vancouver
United States Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Seattle
United States Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at San Francisco
 Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Shanghai
 Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels at Nice

 Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels in Austria
 Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels in Germany
 Non-smoking-room ratio in hotels in Switzerland

Total smoking Ban in hotels at Moscow, Russia
Total smoking Ban in hotels at Saint Pertersburg, Russia


Australia smoking ban Smoking ban in hotels of Canberra and Sydney
Australia smoking ban Smoking ban in hotels of Gold Coast

Smoke-free hotels in Japan
Smoke-free hotels in Tokyo
Smoke-free hotels in Kyoto and Nara, Japan


Total Smoking Ban in USA and Canada

smorking ban bc canada Smoke-free BC Canada
smorking ban alberta canada Smoking Ban in Public and Work places in Alberta
smorking ban Saskatchewan Smoking Ban in Saskatchewan 
smorking ban manitoba canada Nonsmokers Health Protection Act, Manitoba 
smorking ban ontario canada Smoke-free Ontario Act 
smorking ban quebec canada Tobaco Control in Quebec 
smorking ban new Brunswick Smoke-free Places Act, New Brunswick 
smorking ban nova scotia Smoke-free Places Act, Nova Scotia 

smorking ban New Jersey  Smoking Ban in New Jersey 
smorking ban Illinois USA Smoke-free Illinois Act 
smorking ban California USA Smoking Ban in California 1998
smorking ban Beverly Hills California Beverly Hills banned in all outdoor dining areas 
smorking ban condominium Smoking Ban in a condominium of California
smorking ban Washington state Smoking Ban in the State of Washington
smorking ban Oregon USA Smoking Ban in Oregon  
smorking ban Montana USA Montana passed statewide smoking Ban
smorking ban Colorado USA Colorado Clean Indoor Air Act
smorking ban Arizona USA Smoking Ban in Arizona 
smorking ban Maine USA Smoking Ban in the State of Maine
smorking ban Vermont USA Smoking Ban in Vermont 
smorking ban Massachusetts Smoking Ban in the Massachusetts state.
smorking ban New York Smoking Ban in New York 
smorking ban Maryland USA Smoking Ban in Maryland 
smorking ban Washington DC Smoking Ban in Washington,D.C.
smorking ban Minnesota USA Smoking Ban in Minnesota 
smorking ban Delaware USA Smoking Ban in Delaware 
smorking ban Ohio USA Smoking Ban in Ohio 
smorking ban Iowa USA Smoking Ban in Iowa 
smorking ban Utah USA Smoking Ban in Utah 
smorking ban Rhode Island Smoking Ban in Rhode Island 
smorking ban Nevada USA Smoking Ban in Nevada 
smorking ban Virginia USA Smoking Ban in Virginia
smorking ban Michigan USA Smoking Ban in Michigan 
smorking ban Wisconsin USA Smoking Ban in Wisconsin




2007年10月、米国カルフォルニア州、ベルモント市、カラバサス市で賃貸アパート、コンドミニアム内での
喫煙を禁止する条例を可決した。すでに入居している喫煙者は除外されるが、新規に建てられる15戸以上の
アパート、マンション内での喫煙行為は禁止される。米国30州の公衆衛生局が防火、清掃コストの軽減を含め、
経済性と健康の両面から禁煙を勧めており、この5年間に数千のアパートやマンションが全面禁煙に
踏み切っている。今後、こうした規制は全米に拡大して行くとの予測もある。
引用 2007年10月 USA TODAY

カリフォルルニア州上院は、2008年5月31日、賃貸アパートでの喫煙行為を禁止する提案を可決した。家主が
アパートに居住する非喫煙者を有害なタバコ副流煙から守るために建物内での喫煙を禁止することを正式に
承認した。カリフォルニア・アパート協会加盟の約50,000の家主はこの法案に賛成している。一方、有色人種の
低所得層は、差別的な規制であると批判している。


ハワイ州でコンドミニアム居住空間での喫煙禁止法案が浮上している。接近して居住する賃貸住宅では近隣の
喫煙者からのタバコ副流煙により健康を侵害される恐れがある。ハワイ大学のリー教授は「私たちはどこで、
どのように暮らして行くか考え始めている。賃貸物件内での喫煙禁止は火災の危険性を低下させ、清掃費用の
軽減、居住者間のトラブルの減少などいくつもの利点がある」と語る。しかし、こうした規制には全面賛成する
流れがあるものの、反対も少なくなく紆余曲折が予測される。


オレゴン州ではコンドミニアム居住空間での喫煙行為の禁止事項を入居条件として家主が提示している。
こうした賃貸不動産業界では物件内での喫煙行為を禁止する動きが加速しており、米国政府当局も屋内での
全面禁煙規制を強く推奨している。


ユタ州内では年間5万人の人が受動喫煙で死亡し、数十万人の人々が喘息や気管支炎を引き起こしている。
最近の調査によると25,000人の子供たちが家のなかでタバコの煙による障害を受けている。喫煙を禁止した
住宅は火災の危険性も少なく、維持管理も容易である。保険料も安くなるなど、メリットは大きい。最近では
ユタ州を含め、米国27州で共同住宅無煙化の動きが加速して来ている。


喫煙規制は年々厳しくなる一方、自分の部屋のみが自由にタバコを吸える場所となっている。そうした中、
シカゴ市ミシガン湖畔の高層住宅でコンドミニアム内でも喫煙を規制する規則の改正作業が進んでいる。
こうした規則の修正は居住者および来訪者により良い環境を提供するために促進されており、コンドミニアム
協会のLEED(エネルギーおよび環境デザイン)全米ランキングプログラムのもとで行われている。全面禁煙と
することにより清掃塗装費用の削減をもたらし、火災の危険性を減少させる。こうした禁煙化には私的なコンド
ミニアム規則改正によるものと条例による規制方法とがある。

ニューヨークのレストランなどで始まった公共的空間での全面禁煙の流れは年ごとに強化されてており、
コンドミニアムなどの住居空間の禁煙化が討議されて来ている。それは住民の健康上、望ましいことであるが、
すべての共同住居での喫煙を禁止すると、プライバシーの侵害として訴訟の対象となることもあり得る。
しかし、同時に、居住者は近隣の人のタバコ有害煙によって健康を侵害されない権利も保有する。こうした
中、建物の所有者は必ずしも個人住宅空間内の全面禁煙に賛同していない。一方、居住者の4分の3は全面
禁煙化に賛成している。

2012年1月からメイン州のすべての公共住宅が禁煙となる。米国全州のなかで初めての規制である。9月には
大都市、ボストンに及び、25,000戸がその対象となる。規制はさらにデトロイト、サンアントニオ、
オレゴン州のポートランドの公営住宅に及んでいる。こうした建物内の全面禁煙は健康的な生活を促すが、
一部のテナントから自由の侵害との声も出ている。HUD局長は、「全面禁煙となると、家族のうちの一人が
喫煙者であっても一家全員が公営住宅から退去せざるをえなくなる。公営住宅は空きを待っている人が大勢
いるため、一度退去すると特に現在のような経済情勢の下ではその一家はホームレス化する可能性が大きい」
とコメントしている。ニューヨーク住宅公社は、急速に法的規制を行う計画はないが,市保健局の広報担当者
は他の自治体での状況を参考として検討すると述べている。貧困ラインすれすれかそれ以下にある人たちの
喫煙率は、一般人のそれよりは高いので、それへの配慮が必要となる。各種調査によると、公営住宅居住者
の喫煙率は30%であるのに対し、全人口の喫煙率は20%となっている。


住宅でも高い受動喫煙リスク( 日本での取り組み)

先進国で行われている喫煙規制から除外されている場所に個人の住宅がある。しかし、ただ一人の喫煙行為
により、その家族、近隣住人への悪影響は計り知れない。産業医大健康開発科学研究室研究員の中田ゆりさん
は、同じ室内にいる乳児は喫煙者と同じ濃度の粉塵(ふんじん)にさらされ、親がベランダで喫煙して部屋に
戻っても乳児周辺の粉塵濃度が一時的に高まることを実際の測定で確かめた。

中田さんは、喫煙者の父親と生後7ヶ月の乳児がいるマンション室内で、タバコの煙の粉塵濃度を測定した。
同じ部屋で、父親が喫煙しながら、2メートル離れた乳児に話し掛けると、乳児の周辺の粉塵は、父親近くの
粉塵濃度とほぼ同じように増加した。濃度は1立方メートル当たり0.66ミリグラムに達し、厚生労働省が
定める室内基準の4.4倍に達した。喫煙後に窓を開けて換気しても室内の粉塵は一時間以上排出されず、
部屋にとどまっていた。マンションのベランダでタバコを吸うホタル族の父親が喫煙後に部屋に戻ると、
親の呼気中の煙が排出されて、話し掛けられた乳児の周囲の粉塵濃度が元の約2倍となり5〜6分間も高い
まま維持された。中田さんは「換気扇は有効でなく、屋内とベランダで完全に禁煙するしかない」と話して
いる。
資料引用 2008年3月8日付熊本日日新聞

ベランダで喫煙した煙が隣室や上層階の吸排気装置に流れ込み、他人の吸う有害煙による受動喫煙の
被害も少なくない。吸ったタバコの火を投げ捨てて下層階の住民とトラブルを起こすケースも発生している。
火災を引き起こす危険性は常に存在する。こうした理由からも共同住宅での喫煙行為は禁止すべきで
あると思う。

金沢車両が全館禁煙マンションを着工

業務用ワゴンメーカーの金沢車輌(金沢市)は、社有地の有効活用を手始めに、事業の多角化と収益力アップ
を目指す。その第一弾は全館禁煙を特徴にした賃貸マンションで、本社近くの旧駐車場で2008年8月に着工した。
完成は2009年1月。マンションは敷地230平方メートルで3階建て3棟の物件で、来館者を含め全館禁煙とする。
運営および管理は自社で行う。他の社有地について集合住宅や宅地開発など順次、活用法を具体化させる方針
である。小倉通成社長は「社有地で実績を積み、本格事業展開を目指す。5年後をめどに、核事業の一つに
育てたい」と話している。

資料引用 2008年9月17日付北陸中日新聞


米国賃貸住宅喫煙規制
執筆 医学博士 宮本順伯
This Web site is link-free.
The report was written in December 2007 and added in December 2011, photographs used in part of this article
were taken in August 1962, by Junhaku Miyamoto, MD, PhD.


smorking ban Washington state 
Smoking Ban in the State of Washington




Leading Countries in Smoking Ban
 
Italy  Malta   Ireland    North Ireland  New Zealand  Hawaii  Australia
 USA/Canada  Guam Island  Denmark  Sweden    France  
 UK    Thailand   Taiwan    Iceland    Finland






Special Note: 日本語表示

 Russia unduly occupies our Northern Territories of Japan.
 Smoke-free hotels in Japan
  Domestic travel in Japan
 WHO: Smoking should be banned in all public spaces.
 World population: seven billion v.s. Declining birth rate in Japan
 Nobody in the earth can destroy the natural beauty of the land.
 Stop merging war criminals and war victims at Yasukuni Shrine.
 Tax saving's rental housing is mushrooming.

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Smoke-free Hotel and Travel
受動喫煙防止条例  屋内全面禁煙  屋内喫煙設備撤去 鉄道車内完全禁煙レンタカー レストラン バー 飲食店 ホテル 空港 喫煙規制
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