Manhattan, New York
Manhattan is located primarily on Manhattan Island at the mouth of the Hudson River. It is the most densely
populated county in the United States, with 27,485 residents per square kilometer. It is also one of the
wealthiest counties in the United States, with a 2005 personal income per capita above $100,000.
(Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, 23.April.2009)
(L)A Satellite photo of Manhattan, New York by Nasa (R) Time Warner Center consists of 299 m high twin towers.
(L) Amtrak's Acela Express for Washington, D.C. arrived at Pennsylvania Station of New York City.
(R) A police Booth in the center of the hall of the second floor of Pennsylvania Station
(L) No smoking sign on the wall of Pennsylvania Station
(R) A sign board of the Starbucks saying 'Starbucks is a Smoke-free Environment'.
Manhattan is a major commercial, financial, and cultural center of both the United States and the world.
The most major radio, television, and telecommunication companies in United States are based here,
as well as much news, magazine, book, and other media publishers. Manhattan has many famous landmarks,
tourist attractions, museums, and universities. Manhattan has the largest central business district
in the United States, is the site of both the New York stock exchange and Nasdaq, and is the home of
the numerous number of corporate headquarters in the nation. It is the center of the New York City and
metropolitan region, hosting the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment,
business, and entertainment activities.
(L) Tall buildings in Manhattan District (R) Reuters Headquarters in Times Square, Manhattan
(L) Metropolitan Museum, New York (R) A new yorker selling the pictures with a gorgeous color
(L) American Museum of Natural History is located next to the Central Park, New York.
(R) Tall buildings in Manhattan stand on the hard rocky stone layer.
(L) The ground under the bench on a sidewalk beside the Central Park is full of cigarette butts.
(M) A white woman is smoking while walking. The burning tip of cigarette may hit a child's eye.
(R) A street smoking by a Japanese couple
Entertainment center, Broadway, Manhattan, New York City
(L) The world economic center, New York Stock Exchange, Wall Street, Manhattan
(R) One of the world's most famous street, Wall Street, Manhattan, New York City
(L) No smoking sign plate at the American Stock Exchange
(R) A pole style-cigarette butt-receptor outside of the American Stock Exchange
'Charging bull' stands near Wall Street
World-famous ice Rink at Rockefeller Center, Manhattan, New York
New York City outdoor smoking ban begins.
Very quiet New York's Central Park with a rich in green
Smokers in New York City looking for lighting up in most public places will not be able to without paying
a price after an outdoor citywide smoking ban takes an effect. The law, which Mayor Michael Bloomberg
signed in February 2011 after it was passed by the New York City Council, will make smoking illegal
in New York City's 1,700 parks and on the city's 14 miles of public beaches. Smoking will also be
prohibited in pedestrian plazas like Times Square. The ban is designed to help curb exposure to
secondhand smoke as well as reduce litter.
Secondhand smoke causes close to 50,000 deaths per annum, and side effects may include lung cancer,
respiratory infections and asthma, according to the American Lung Association's website. Cigarette
butts account for 75% of the litter found on New York City beaches, according to a news release
from Bloomberg's office. "Smoking in parks and beaches not only harms people trying to enjoy these
recreational facilities. It also causes a litter problem that harms the beauty of our parks," Bloomberg
said before he signed the bill into law. New York follows in the footsteps of 105 municipalities in states,
including California, Hawaii, Massachusetts and New Jersey that have banned smoking on public beaches.
Major cities, include Los Angeles, Minneapolis and Seattle. In states including California, Texas, Illinois,
Minnesota and New Jersey, 507 municipalities impose laws that prohibit city parks, or specifically named
city parks, to allow smoking. Major cities include Los Angeles, San Francisco and Salt Lake City.
Puerto Rico prohibits smoking in all parks and beaches.
"These smoke-free laws start at a local level," said Cynthia Hallett, executive director of Americans
for Nonsmokers' Rights. "They are based on community demand, science looking at exposure to
secondhand smoke and the environmental impact. Thirty-five states have laws, in effect, which require
the 100% smoke-free non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants or bars. The smokefree Laws compiled in
April 2011. In all, 79.4% of the country's population is covered by local and state laws banning smoking.
Hallett added that the trend to ban smoking is working from the inside out, starting in the indoor
workplace, moving to restaurants with patios and then eventually to the great outdoors.
The ban will be enforced by the city's parks department, and if violators are caught, they could be fined $50.
New York passed its first Smoke-Free Air Act in 1988, when smoking was banned in public restrooms
and taxicabs. Since then, the law has been amended three times, most notably in 2002, when smoking
in some indoor areas, including restaurants
and bars, was banned.
Source: May 23, 2011 Jordana Ossad, CNN
$B!!(BPhotography: North-eastern USA 2007
Total Smoking Ban in USA and Canada
$B!!(BSmoke-free BC Canada
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Public and Work places in Alberta
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Saskatchewan$B!!(B
$B!!(BNonsmokers Health Protection Act, Manitoba$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Ontario Act$B!!(B
$B!!(BTobacco Control in Quebec$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Places Act, New Brunswick$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Places Act, Nova Scotia$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in New Jersey$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Illinois Act$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in California$B!!(B1998
$B!!(BBeverly Hills banned in all outdoor dining areas$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in a condominium of California
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in the State of Washington
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Oregon$B!!!!(B
$B!!(BMontana passed statewide smoking Ban
$B!!(BColorado Clean Indoor Air Act
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Arizona$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in the State of Maine
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Vermont$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in the $B#M(Bassachusetts state.
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in New York$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Maryland$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Washington,D.C.
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Minnesota$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Delaware$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Ohio$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Iowa$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Utah$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Rhode Island$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Nevada$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Virginia
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Michigan$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Wisconsin
USA and CANADA 2007
Arrival to Boston State of Maine to the Canadian Border Quebec City Autumn-tinted Quebec, Montreal
Ottawa Vermont and New Hampshire Boston$B!!(B Boston Railway Boston Subway$B!!(B
Amtrak Acela Express$B!!(B Manhattan1 Manhattan2 New York Railway$B!!(B New York Subway and JFK Airport
USA and CANADA 2010
Washington, DC Ontario Michigan
Smokefree British Columbia Smokefree Alberta$B!!(B Trip to Canada 2011 Vancouver
North Vancouver Whistler Skytrain$B!!(B VIA train Jasper Icefield and Bow Summit
Emerald Lake Lake Louise Banff Calgary Edmonton Hospitals in BC and Alberta
Tobacco control in B.C. and Alberta 2011
$B!V6X1l@J%M%C%H!W(B $B $BK\J8$*$h$S All photographs were taken in October 2007, unless otherwise described.
The article was written in October 2007, and revised in November 2009,
by Junhaku Miyamoto, M.D., PhD.